1 7 7

: -

  1. #1
    .: :.
    Ubuntu 12.04
    GNOME

    May 2008
    1,262
    454
    2,165 329

    - -



    :FDL --




    .





    :
    /etc/passwd


    cat
    :
    cat /etc/passwd
    :

    :
    sync:x:4:65534:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
    games:x:5:60:games:/usr/games:/bin/sh
    man:x:6:12:man:/var/cache/man:/bin/sh
    lp:x:7:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/bin/sh
    me:x:1000:1000:land cruser:/home/me:/bin/bash
    7 ":"

    1. :
    2. : Shadow
    3. :
    4. :
    5. ()
    6. :

    :
    /bin/bash


    :
    :
    /etc/group


    :

    :
    haldaemon:x:123:
    me:x:1000:
    vboxusers:x:124:me
    sambashare:x:125:me
    winbindd_priv:x:126:
    thwab:!:127:



    :
    useradd LOGIN
    LOGIN

    adduser

    passwd
    :
    newusers

    /etc/skel .
    ( etc/skel /home/username )

    :
    :
    ls -a /etc/skel/
    a
    :
    .  ..  .bash_logout  .bashrc  Examples  .profile

    :
    passwd [options] [LOGIN]


    :
    /etc/passwd

    :
    usermode [options] LOGIN
    [options] LOGIN


    -c
    -d
    -e
    -g
    -G
    -s
    -l
    -u
    -L
    -U
    -p

    G .
    :
    :
    usermode -G usergroup,sambashare,vboxusers username
    :
    :
    /etc/passwd
    /etc/shadow
    /etc/group
    /var/spool/mail/
    :
    :
    userdel -r LOGIN
    r

    -----
    : passwd group 644
    shadow 640
    -----


    .
    :
    chage [options] [LOGIN]

    -m
    -M
    -I
    -E YYYY-MM-DD -l
    -W



    Shadow

    :
    pwunconv
    passwd passwd shadow shadow
    :
    pwconv
    shadow passwd shadow




    :
    grpconv
    grpunconv
    gshadow

    shadow shadow passwd.

    cat .



    groupadd

    groupdel

    :
    groupmod -n NEW_NAME GROUP

    GROUP NEW_NAME


    -g .




    :
    su [options] [LOGIN]


    -
    :
    su -
    [LOGIN]
    :
    su - USERNAME




    ls -l FILENAME
    FILENAME
    :
    -rw-r--r-- 1 usama usama 1732 2008-08-26 12:07 index.html
    index.html

    usama .
    .



    chown []... [][:[]] ...
    :
    index.html khaled
    chown khaled index.html
    ls -l
    :
    -rw-r--r-- 1 khaled usama 1732 2008-08-26 12:07 index.html
    . :
    :
    chown khaled:khaled index.html
    -- --
    ; 12-09-2008 07:26 PM


  2. #2
    .: :.
    Ubuntu 12.04
    GNOME

    May 2008
    1,262
    454
    2,165 329


    ls -l
    :
    -rw-r--r--
    9 .

    :
    owner
    group
    others

    :
    r
    w
    x








    :
    :
    -rw-r--r--


    ( )

    :
    :
    -rwxrwxrwx
    , .
    .

    SUID SGID


    :

    :
    -rwsr-xr-x 1 root root 29104 2008-04-03 03:08 /usr/bin/passwd
    shadow .
    passwd s shadow .

    s gedit
    :
    -rwxr-xr-x

    :
    -rwsr-xr-x
    .

    s
    chmod u+s FILENAME

    chmod g+s FILENAME
    .

    s s .

    :
    -rwsr-xr-x

    :
    -rwSr-xr-x

    :
    -rwxr-sr-x








    :
    :
    chmod o+t /home/photo
    photo home .
    :
    :
    drwxrwxr-t
    t . d . - .

    others t T "".

    tmp
    ; 30-08-2008 02:10 PM

  3. :


  4. #3
    .: :.
    Ubuntu 12.04
    GNOME

    May 2008
    1,262
    454
    2,165 329



    .
    :
    $ touch file.txt
    $ ls -l file.txt
    -rw-r--r-- 1 me me 0 2008-09-04 10:43 file.txt

    :
    # chmod g+s dirictory
    dirictory . .\\
    :
    :
    # chmod 2775 dirictory





    :
    # umask
    022 022 666 777 . 644 755 .


    :
    $ umask 002
    . umask . .



    FIXME

    me me. .
    :
    :
    newgroup
    \\ - . - su

    :
    chgrp [OPTION]... GROUP FILE...

    :
    chgrp group filename
    man.


    User Environment

    /etc/skel . : .\\
    /etc/skel

    FIXME
    :
    useradd -mk


    :
    /etc/profile
    umask


    :
    ~/.bash_profile

    :
    ~/.bashrc

    :
    /etc/bashrc

    :
    /etc/profile.d
    rpm . /etc/profile /etc/bashrc .

    /etc/bashrc ~/.bashrc





    :
    ~/.bashrc
    .
    :
    ~/.bash_profile
    \\

    :
    ~/.profile

    Quota

    . usrquota grpquota
    :
    /etc/fstab

    :
    /Sharedpartion

    :
    # mount -o remount /Sharedpartion
    Sharedpartion.
    aquota.user aquota.group .
    .

    :
    # qutoacheck -c /home
    inode block .

    quotaon quotaoff. .
    :
    # quotaon /Sharedpartion
    -a /etc/fstab. .


    :
    edquota username
    .

    :
    edquota -p olduser newuser
    p prototype olduser newuser

    FIXME
    -t .
    quota
    :
    repquota
    :
    warnqouta
    //( )//
    . .

    (C) 2008 Usama Akkad

    Ρ / GNU 1.2 ɡ () ( ) ( ).. ( GNU).

    --- //[[| ]] 2008/09/12 13:34
    ; 12-09-2008 07:37 PM

  5. :


  6. #4
    .: :.
    Ubuntu 12.04
    GNOME

    May 2008
    1,262
    454
    2,165 329

    .

  7. #5
    .: :.
    GNOME

    Apr 2007
    2,810
    2,026
    1,566 405




  8. #6
    .: :.
    Ubuntu 12.04
    GNOME

    May 2008
    1,262
    454
    2,165 329


  9. #7
      Abdelaziz-Pc
    Fedora 17
    GNOME3

    Apr 2008
    121
    82
    111 47


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